References Validating HHO Technology
The material in these links is very dry. They are scientific papers written for a scientific community. But for those that are interested in the tests done to validate this technology, the results can be found here. Most of these documents are by and for the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers). The SAE links are to the short abstracts of the paper. At the bottom of the list are references to patents that have been applied for. These patents go back to 1914. This subject is not new!
There are a couple of abbreviations used frequently in these documents: ICE - Internal Combustion Engine, and SI - Spark Ignition; as in an "SI engine".
Cassidy, J.F., Emissions and Total Energy Consumption of a Multi-Cylinder Piston Engine Running on Gasoline and a Hydrogen-Gasoline Mixture, Technical Note Report # E-9105, May, 1977, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C.
Department of Transportation report, "Guidelines For Use Of Hydrogen Fuel In Commerecial Vehicles, Final Report", November 2007.
Onboard Generation of Hydrogen-Rich Gaseous Fuels - A Review, , Y. Jamal and M.L.Wyszynski, School of Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering University of Birmingham, Birmingham UK
Effect of Hydrogen Enriched Hydrocarbon Combustion on Emissions and Performance, by Jacob Wall, Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of Idaho
Allgeier, T., Klenk, M., Landenfeld, T., Conte, E., Boulouchos, K., Czerwinski, J., Advanced Emission and Fuel Economy Concept Using Combined Injection of Gasoline and Hydrogen in SI Engines, Publication #2004-01-1270, March, 2004, Society of Automotive Engineers, Troy, MI.
Apostolescu, N., Chiriac, R., A Study of Combustion of Hydrogen-Enriched Gasoline in a Spark Ignition Engine, Publication #960603, February, 1996, Society of Automotive Engineers, Troy, MI.
Conte, E., Boulouchos, K., Influence of Hydrogen-Rich-Gas Addition on Combustion, Pollutant Formation and Efficiency of an IC-SI Engine, Publication #2004-01-0972, March, 2004, Society of Automotive Engineers, Troy, MI.
Fontana, G., Galloni, E., Jannelli, E., Minutillo, M., Performance and Fuel Consumption Estimation of a Hydrogen Enriched Gasoline Engine at Part-Load Operation, Publication #2002-01-2196, July, 2002, Society of Automotive Engineers, Troy, MI.
Goldwitz, J., Heywood, J., Combustion Optimization in a Hydrogen-Enhanced Lean Burn SI Engine, Publication #2005-01-0251, April, 2005, Society of Automotive Engineers, Troy, MI.
Green, J., Bromberg, L., Cohn, D., Rabinovitch, A., Domingo, N., Storey, J., Wagner, R., Armfield, J., Experimental Evaluation of SI Engine Operation Supplemented By Hydrogen Rich Gas From a Compact Plasma Boosted Reformer, Publication #2000-01-2206, June, 2000, Society of Automotive Engineers, Troy, MI.
Henshaw, P., DAndrea, T., Ting, D., Sobiesiak, A., Investigating Combustion Enhancement and Emissions Reduction With the Addition of 2H2 + O2 to a SI Engine, Publication #2003-32-0011, September, 2003, Society of Automotive Engineers, Troy, MI.
Houseman, J., Cerini, D., On-Board Hydrogen Generator for a Partial Hydrogen Injection Internal Combustion, Publication #740600, February, 1974, Society of Automotive Engineers, Troy, MI.
Jing-ding, L., Ying-ging, L., Tian-shen, D., An Experimental Study on Combustion of Gasoline-Hydrogen Mixed Fuel, Publication #830897, April, 1989, Society of Automotive Engineers, Troy, MI.
Lang, O., Habermann, K., Thiele, R., Fricke, F., Gasoline Combustion with Future Fuels, Publication #2007-26-021, January, 2007, Society of Automotive Engineers, Troy, MI.
Shinagawa, T., Okumura, T., Furuno, S., Kim, K., Effects of Hydrogen Addition to SI Engine on Knock Behavior, Publication #2004-01-1851, June, 2004, Society of Automotive Engineers, Troy, MI.
Sjarstrarm, K., Eriksson, S., Landqvist, G., Onboard Hydrogen Generation for Hydrogen Injection into Internal Combustion Engines, Publication #810348, February, 1981, Society of Automotive Engineers, Troy, MI.
Stebar, R., Parks, F., Emission Control with Lean Operation Using Hydrogen-Supplemented Fuel, Publication #740187, February, 1974, Society of Automotive Engineers, Troy, MI.
Tully, E., Heywood, J., Lean-Burn Characteristics of a Gasoline Engine Enriched with Hydrogen from a Plasmatron Fuel Reformer, Publication #2003-01-0630, March, 2003, Society of Automotive Engineers, Troy, MI.
Conte, E., Boulouchos, K., A Quasi-Dimensional Model for Estimating the Influence of Hydrogen- Rich Gas Addition on Turbulent Flame Speed and Flame Front Propagation in IC-SI Engines, Publication #2005-01-0232, April, 2005, Society of Automotive Engineers, Troy, MI.
Heywood, J., Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill International Editions Automotive Technology Series, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 1988.
Lewis, B., Von Elbe, G., Combustion, Flames, and Explosions of Gases, 3rd ed., Academic Press, Orlando, FL, 1987.
Taylor, C. The Internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice, 2 Vols., 2nd ed., Revised, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1985.
United States Patent #1,112,188 issued on September 29, 1914 to Leonard Atwood
United States Patent #1,262,034 issued on April 9, 1918 to Charles Frazer
United States Patent #1,490,975 issued on April 15, 1924 to William Howard
United States Patent #1,876,879 issued on September 13, 1932 to Walter Drabold
United States Patent #2,509,498 issued on May 30, 1950 to George Heyl
United States Patent #3,311,097 issued on March 28, 1967 to Georg Mittelstaedt
United States Patent #4,023,545 issued on May 17, 1977 to Edward Mosher and John Webster
United States Patent #6,209,493 issued on April 3, 2001 to Bill Ross