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PWM Instructions

LCD And PWM Controller Instructions

Important Information

These instructions are valid for both the Constant Current PWM (for cars) and the 100 Amp Commercial PWM (with minor exceptions). Before diving into an installation and operation of your PWM, it is advisable to find out what a PWM is and how it does it's job. There is a simple article on the site that will walk you through the basics of a PWM, and clear up the terms that are used in conjunction with it... Including what "PWM" actually means. You can find it here: What Is A PWM?

Main Components

  1. The LCD Display/Controller module. This device shows you the important readings of your PWM, and also controls the PWM so that it maintains its constant current maximum amperage. This device should be mounted in the passenger compartment of your vehicle so you can see at a glance what is going on with your HHO system.
  2. The PWM enclosed in the box with its switch and cooling fan. This is the actual PWM that does the work of pulsing the power to an HHO cell. This device should be mounted near your cell to minimize the length of any wire runs between your battery and the cell.

Connection Instructions

The LCD display only needs to be connected to the Cat5 cable coming out of the PWM. Plug the Cat5 cable into the receptacle in the Display. It gets its power through this cable. You can then secure the back of the display with the 4 screws provided.

While you are initially setting up your HHO system, it is handy to have the display near your system so you can easily monitor your system when you first start it up. Later, when you have everything working properly, you will want to run the Cat5 cable into your passenger compartment and permanently mount the display where you can see it. Note: to disconnect the Cat5 cable from the Controller's terminal, carefully insert a small screwdriver underneath the cable and press up to disengage the locking tab on the connector.

Connect your PWM to the cell and battery. There are 4 heavy gauge wires coming out of the PWM, and one light gauge wire. Your connector kit has matching connectors. The use of these connectors will allow you to unplug the PWM unit if you should ever need to remove it in the future.

The 4 heavy gauge wires are as follows: Red and Black are for power and ground from your battery. The power lead (red) should be connected to your battery, via a circuit breaker. The black wire should be extended to a good ground, preferably the negative battery terminal.

PWM Without Display


PWM Connection Diagram



The White and Green wires get extended to your cell or cells. The white wire is the positive lead that goes to your cell. The green wire is the negative lead to your cell. However, don't confuse these with regular power and ground. Once they come out of the PWM they must not be allowed to connect to other power and ground circuits in your vehicle. They must only connect to the terminals of your HHO dry cell.

We use 10 gauge cable for these high current wires for nearly all installations.  But if you anticipate long cable runs or higher amperages, then you should use this chart to calculate the wire gauge you should use.

The small red wire is used to turn on the PWM. We use a small gauge wire to control this function. We recommend attaching this wire to the fuel pump relay circuit. Any gauge wire down to 30 AWG can be used for this purpose. I usually use a larger gauge so that it won't be easily damaged. 24 gauge is fine.

If you have more than one cell then you can extend one cable out to where your cells are, and then split the cable at the cells so that each cell gets both positive and negative connections. Multiple cells are connected in parallel. The diagram shows both series and parallel connections in order to illustrate the difference between the 2 connection methods. But we never connect our cells in series.

You can use 12 gauge wire to connect to any one cell, and this cell should not be run at over 15 amps. If you need more amperage, you should use 10 gauge wire. You can use 10 gauge wire for circuits that run up to 40 amps provided your total wire run is not over 15 feet. For instance if you are using 10 gauge wire from your battery to your PWM and from your PWM to your cells, then the total length of the power wires should not exceed 15 feet. The total length of the ground wires should also not exceed 15 feet.

Multi-stack cells: A stack is defined as 2 hot plates (plates that are connected to the PWM's output white and green wires), with 5 neutral plates between them. A 2-stack cell, or Double Stack Cell can be thought of as 2 adjacent cells. The center hot plate is common to both "cells" on either side of it. It can be either positive (connected to the white PWM output wire), or negative (connected to the green PWM output wire). The other PWM output wire is split to connect to the outside 2 hot plates.

parallel wiring double stack cell

For our 6" and 7" cells, you should not run more than 15 amps per cell, or per stack. See below for a description of multi-stack cells. Our 12" cells can run higher amperages, but are usually not run at over 40 amps and often even less for best efficiency. This information is for understanding PWM installation only. But note that most people use more amperage than they need for best fuels mileage gains. Please see How Much HHO Should I Use? for more information.

IMPORTANT SAFETY RELATED INFORMATION: The final wire on the PWM is the control wire. This is the small red wire (18 gauge). This wire must have 12 volts on it in order for the PWM to turn on. This is used as a safety measure so that the PWM will only run when the engine is running. This wire should be connected to the fuel pump relay circuit, or similar. The fuel pump relay circuit powers up briefly when the car is turned on to charge the system, but after that will only be on when the engine is actually running. Since this is the only time we want HHO to be produced, we use this circuit for the source of our control voltage. This will ensure that the PWM is not running when the ACC switch is on, but the engine is not actually running. Be sure to test this circuit carefully to make sure it is only on when the engine is running. If your HHO system is producing HHO while you are sitting in the car listening to the stereo, you can have HHO build up under your hood, and this can explode when you start your engine. So this point is important.

Important Notes For 24 Volt Systems

There are 2 modifications to the PWM installation instructions when working with 24 volt systems. They are quite simple, but quite important:

1. The PWM control wire must receive 12 volts (Not applicable to Commercial PWMs). The control wire is the small gauge red wire. It is an 18 gauge wire, whereas the current carrying wires colored red, black, white and green are all much larger. Power must be supplied to this wire for the system to be able to turn on. This circuit draws negligible power - about .35 amps. To be clear, the PWM can control 24 volts on its heavy gauge wires. But must be controlled with 12 volts to the small gauge red wire on the PWM. Using 24 volts on this control wire will damage the LCD Controller.

There are 2 methods of supplying this 12 volts to the PWM:

  • 1) DC to DC Converter. Take a wire from your fuel pump relay to the "24 Volts + In" on the voltage converter. Also provide a ground wire to the converter. Then connect the "12 Volts + Out" terminal to the small gauge red wire on your PWM.
  • 2) Relay. If you have a source of 12 volt power available, you can use a relay. Note that if you use 2 - 12 volt batteries to supply your 24 volt ignition power, you can get 12 volts from the connection between the 2 batteries. You would control the relay with your system voltage (24 volts), and it would switch the 12 volts which you would route to the 18 gauge red trigger wire on the PWM.

If you have an EFIE or a MAP Enhancer that also needs 12 volts, you can use this source to power them. These devices take about 50 milliamps (.05 amps).

2. Use 11 neutral plates. While we're powering the PWM and controller ciccuitry with 12 volts, we're still powering the cell itself with your system voltage of 24 volts. The 10 gauge red wire coming out of the EFIE gets connected to your 24 volt system voltage, via a circuit breaker as per the instructions. The black cable gets connected to ground. With this arrangement the PWM will output 24 volt pulses on it white and green cables. Since the pulses have twice as much voltage, we need to connect them to the cell differently than with a 12 volt system.

On 12 volt systems we use 5 neutral plates. With 24 volt systems we use 11 neutral plates, and with 32 volt systems 23 use 15 neutral plates. A neutral plate is a plate that has no wire from the PWM connected to it. Below is a diagram of a 24 volt system connected to the cell. Notice that there is a center tab that would have a wire connected to it on a 12 volt system, but on a 24 volt system that center tab becomes a neutral plate. If you count the plates between the green and white wires, you'll see that there are 11 neutral plates. This arrangement ensures that we get the proper voltage between adjacent plates for efficient HHO production.

Double Stack

These are the only 2 changes required for 24 volt systems. Otherwise, just follow the instructions for 12 volt systems.

100 Amp Commercial PWM

There are a number of places to connect wires that will be covered below. The main terminal block is black and is where all high current wires are connected. These are the main feed wires from the battery to the PWM and from the PWM to the cell. Be sure to use the appropriate gauge wire for the amount of amps you are going to use and the length of the wires. You can see a guide here for getting the correct wire gauges: Wire Gauge Chart

100A Commercial PWM

On the other side of the PWM is a green plug-in terminal block. You can pull out the terminal block from the PWM to connect your wires. There is white lettering on the PWM to indicate what each terminal is for. The following list will indicate the use of each terminal:

  • 12/24/32 Volts In:
    Used to power the PWM. It draws very little amperage - less than 150 milliamps. This will take any voltage from 12 up to 32 volt systems. This connection would ideally come from the fuel pump relay so it only gets power when the engine is actually running. However, you can also power it from any source that is activated by the key switch of the vehicle. However, in this case you should activate voltage sensing so that the PWM will not make HHO when the engine isn't running. See the section below regarding "Voltage Sensing".
  • Trigger:
    Reserved for a future version. This is grounded in the current version of the PWM.
  • Float Switch (Gnd):
    Connect your 2 wires for the float switch (reservoir level sensor) to this terminal and the next one.
  • Float Switch:
    Connect the other float switch wire here.
  • Ground:
    These are courtesy ground terminals for such things as EFIEs, MAP Enhancers, etc. There are 3 of these terminals, and they are all the same. Don't use as a ground for high current devices such as heaters and headlights and such. These are for small current devices like EFIEs and such.
  • 12V Out (500 mA):
    Can be used to power EFIEs, MAP Enahncers and the like. No more than 500 milliamps.

By opening the back of the 100A Commercial PWM, you can access the circuit board.  On the circuit board is a 5 Amp fuse.  You should never blow this fuse because the PWM draws very little current.  I can't think of a way you could blow it.  But if you do, it's replaced with a 5 amp mini blade fuse.

The display for the 100A Commerical PWM works that same as it does for the car system. It connects to the display via a cat5 computer cable, and plugs into the socket marked "Display".


Once all the wiring is connected, you may turn on your ignition and turn on the switch on the PWM. If your installation was successful you will see the display light up and start telling you information about the electrical environment.

The controller for the system is built into the display module. It is the controller that actually adjusts the current and monitors the activity of the PWM. While the system is running, it provides information to the user as to volts, current, frequency, duty cycle and if any errors are present, will display them.

display normal display error

The display on the right is in error mode, and the display on the left is in normal operating mode. While operating normally, the display will show Amps and Duty Cycle on the top line, and Volts and Frequency on the bottom line. However, when an error is being displayed, the error takes up the bottom line of the display, until it is cleared. In this mode, the top line shows Amps, Volts and Duty Cycle

Programming Instructions

To program the PWM, we use the knob below the Liquid Crystal Display. Press the knob once to enter setup. Now you can turn the knob to cycle through the different functions. When you get to the function you want to make changes to, press the knob again, and you'll enter that setup screen.

To make the changes, you will use the knob and button. Use the knob to navigate through any options available, and then press the knob once to select the new setting. Some screens have multiple settings, and you turn the knob to make any needed changes, and press the knob to accept each setting. Finally, turn the knob to the final screen that is labeled, "Exit". You must press the knob at this screen to ensure that your changes are recorded in memory.

The following series of videos will show you how to use the PWM. Note: As advancements and refinements are made, there may be slight differences between the following videos and your controller. The instructions following the video should be consulted where there is any discrepancy.

Here's the full listing of the Menu Items, not all of which are shown in the video:

1. On/Off. Use this menu option to turn the PWM on or off in software. There is no switch in the cab to turn off the pwm. But you can do it in software, and the PWM will remember this state after power is removed and it is again restarted.

2. Constant Amps. Use this screen to set the amps that the PWM will provide to the cell.

3. Volt Sensing. This item has several settings. The first is "Y" or "N", and sets whether volt sensing is activated. If not activated, the system will not shut down automatically on low voltages. If "Y" is selected then the next 2 screens will allow you to adjust the "On" and "Off" voltages. The On Voltage is the voltage that must be available in order for the PWM to turn on. Then, if the voltage drops below the Off Voltage, the PWM will shut down. In that case, the voltage must come back up to the On Voltage again in order for it to start back up. We recommend beginning with 13.0 volts for your On Voltage and 12 volts for your Off Voltage. See a further discussion of this item below.

4. Level Alarm. This function causes the display to sound and show an alarm when the level in your reservoir gets too low. It requires that you have a float switch for your reservoir installed. You would change the setting from "N" to "Y". You would also select the type of switch that you have; normally open or normally closed. Most float switches work either way just by turning them upside down. Route your switch wires to the terminals marked "L" and "B-" on the PWM circuit board. Note, "B-" is ground, so you may use any good ground source if it's easier for your installation.

level switch

5. Calibrate. Press this button to calibrate the amps display to your PWM. This step only needs to be done once.

6. Enter Codes. This is used to enter codes that affect the operation of the PWM. Mostly we use these codes to turn on and off a number of PWM functions. When you find that your PWM triggers an error so frequently that it becomes an annoyance, then you can use one of these codes to turn that error. To enter a code, turn the knob to cycle through the available numbers and characters available. The available numbers are 0-9 and A-F. When you get to the number you want, press the button, and you'll be advanced to the next character position. Again, turn the knob to select the 2nd character, and so on. When you have entered the last character, press the knob twice to complete your entry. If you have entered a valid code, the word "Saved" will flash onto the screen for a moment. If you enter an unrecognizable code, then "Invalid" will be displayed shortly. Entering an invalid code has no effect whatsoever. So, if you are entering a code and accidentally enter a wrong character, then just press the button twice and start over.

The following codes are recognized:

25350 - No Load check off (Delected after v1.29)
25351 - No Load check on

3AC2F0 - Instant Amps Check off (Delected after v1.29)
3AC2F1 - Instant Amps Check on

C187A0 - Total Amps Check off (Delected after v1.29)
C187A1 - Total Amps Check on

2EE040 - Runaway Amps Check off
2EE041 - Runaway Amps Check on

232250 - Fan Stopped Check off
232251 - Fan Stopped Check on

143AC0 - Turn Passwords off (Added in Version 1.29)
143AC1 - Turn Passwords on
143AC2 - Change Password
143AC2 - Reset Password to "1"

1414x - Voltage Tuning - see below for instructions(Added in Version 1.29)

Frequency functions: If activated may void warranty.

14CB0F0 - turn frequency menu item off
14CB0F1 - turn frequency menu item on
14CB0F2 - turn frequency menu item on but hide it again after next power on

When using higher frequencies on large cells (above 10") or with an extreme number of plates (more than 25 plates), the cell develops a large capacitive kickback onto the PWM. I've seen voltage spikes of over 150 volts come back out of a cell that was running at 12 or 24 volts. Our commercial PWMs employ a capacitor to absorb these spikes. But running high frequencies on cells with a large plate area, causes the amount of energy coming from these spikes to increase. This can cause the capacitor to overheat and fail, and if that happens, the spikes will kill the mosfet chips. For this reason the frequency function is turned off for the commercial PWMs. If you increase the frequency, please monitor the temperature of the biggest capacitor on the circuit board. As long as it stays cool, you're OK.

7. Frequency: If this menu item has been activated, it will show up here. Just set the frequency to the desired number and press enter.

Voltage Sensing

During your initial set up of your HHO system, we recommend you keep this set to "Off". We don't want your PWM shutting off for unknown reasons while we are trying to get everything working for the first time. However, you will want to use this function as it provides another layer of safety on top of the control wire discussed above. By turning this function on, and getting the voltages set correctly, the PWM will shut off when the engine stops running due to low voltage.

The voltage of your vehicle's electrical system is actually only nominally (in name only) 12 volts. When the engine is shut off, the battery will usually provide less than 12 volts. If any kind of current demand is being made on it, such as would be the case with an HHO system running, it will drop to below 12 volts. However, when the engine is running, the alternator produces well over 12 volts to the electrical system so that the battery will charge. If you measure the voltage at your battery when the engine is running, you will usually see about 13.5 volts or a bit more. We are using this voltage difference to sense when the engine is not running, and to use it as an additional layer of safety.

In the general instructions above, we gave you some voltages to use for this function. You should actually make a few measurements on your system to make sure these voltages are the best to use for your vehicle. For instance, we want the On Voltage to be low enough that it will always come on when it should, but not so low that it will come on when it shouldn't. To test for a good On Voltage, let your car run at idle, then turn on all the devices you will likely ever use. Run your HHO generator at the amperage you plan to use. Turn on your head lights and your stereo, and run you're A/C with the fan on high. Now measure the voltage. You'll want your On Voltage to be below this voltage.

Now turn off all of the accessories, and turn off the car. Measure the voltage. You will find that it quickly drops down to 12 volts or a little below. You'll want your Off Voltage to be above the voltage you see now.

After activating this function, if the voltage drops below your off voltage threshold, the PWM will set it's duty cycle to 0, effectively turning the system off..

Getting these voltages correct is easy to do, and will give you an extra layer of safety with your HHO system. Between this function, and the control wire, we are making very certain that HHO not being produced unknowingly, nor when the engine is off. This is an important safety consideration. You never want your system making HHO while the engine is not running and therefore instantly consuming it.

Password Function

A password function has been added at the request of one of my OEMs. This allows the OEM to lock out the menu after he gets everything set up correctly for his customers. To get to the menu, one must enter a password. This feature can be turned on and off via the Enter Codes menu command as described above.

To change the password, go to "6.Enter Codes" on the menu.  Enter 143AC2.  Then exit the menu.  Now, push the button to go back into the menu.  Instead of the menu appearing, "Password?" will appear on the screen.  Enter the new password followed by a blank space.  Note passwords are a maximum of 8 hexadecimal digits.  If you enter a longer password, only the first 8 digits will be recorded.  Password defaults to "1", so if you activate this feature you will want to put in your own password.  Be careful to write it down.  If you lock yourself out of the menu, you won't be able to change the password.

Voltage Tuning

This function was added to increase the accuracy of the voltage display.  In some cases the display can be off by as much as 0.2 volts.  This has to do with the accuracy of the the electronic components where the voltage is measured.  To increase the accuracy of the voltage display, you must connect an accurate meter to the voltage input.  For car PWMs the input is the small red wire that powers the PWMs electronics.  For Commercial PWMs the input being measured is the high current input (Batt+) on the large terminal block.  Attach your meter to the correct input, and to the main ground to the PWM.  It's best to do this test while the engine isn't running so that the voltage is very stable.

Compare the voltage on your meter to the voltage that the PWM shows you on the display.  If the voltage on the display is lower, you need to add voltage, and if the display shows a higher voltage, you need to subtract.  Voltage is changed using the Enter Codes menu step, and the prefix is 1414x.  The "x" is replaced with a number that will cause the voltage to add or subtract.  Replace "x" with 1-5 to add voltage.  The higher the number, the larger the amount added. Note that adding 3 is 8 times as much as adding 1. So take care using the larger numbers  Replace "x" with 6-9 to reduce voltage.  Using 6 reduces the voltage by 1 unit, and 9 reduces it by 3 units. Further, replacing "x" with "A" will reduce the voltage by 4 units. By adding or subtracting as needed, it's possible to get the display to match exactly to an accurate meter.

Error messages and their meanings:

  • Fan Stopped - The fan is not turning. This could be an obstruction, or it could be a failed fan. Either way, the PWM is programmed to shut down if the fan fails. This is so it won't overheat.
  • Low Liquid - You must have the Level Sensing activated in software in order for this one to show up. Note, that Level Sensing is turned off by default. See the description of this function at #3 in the Programming Instructions section above.
  • Low Volt:PWM OFF - See the section on Voltage Sensing above. This error indicates that the voltage sensing system has detected a low voltage condition and has shut down the PWM. This function is turned off by default. You must activate it in the main menu if you want this check done.
  • No Load - (deleted after version 1.29) This error occurs when less than 3 amps are being drawn on the system, yet the duty cycle is above 50%. It is an informational error only. The PWM will continue trying to run a cell, with the only difference being that the duty cycle will not go above 50% until the error is cleared. It will continue to try to find a load to run.
  • Hi Amps:PWM OFF - (deleted after version 1.29) Instant amps too high. 10 A doesn't sound like much, and it isn't. However, if the duty cycle is at 5%, the instant amps being drawn by the system during that fraction of a second is 200Amps, which is enough to fry the mosfets. So we monitor this and shut the system down if these values are exceed.
  • Hi Amps:Alarm - (deleted after version 1.29) This one just means that amps have gone above the set point and is not coming back down.
  • Emergency!
    Disconnect Cell!: This is a 2 line error, and is very insistent. This one occurs only if the PWM has lost control of the cell. The controller will try to reduce duty cycle, but the current doesn't stop flowing. In this case, current will flow until one of the cables to the PWM is disconnected. This requires action. It means that the PWM has been damaged, probably by being short circuited.

Software Revision History

Version 1.0: Changed default frequency to 65 Hz.

Version 1.1: Various cosmetic changes were made to the display.

Version 1.2: Rewrote all code for handling the encoder (control knob). Smoother operation of the knob resulted.

Version 1.21: Changed the main display layout so that errors could be reported.

Version 1.22: Added ability to change the frequency. Added error reporting for multiple errors.

Version 1.24: Added 'No Load' check to errors. Checks to be sure the system is drawing current and reports an error if less than 3 amps are being drawn at 50% duty cycle or more.

Version 1.25: Added 1) check for high instant amps - instant amps is defined as average amps (as displayed on the controller) divided by duty cycle. If that amperage is too high, the PWM will shut down to protect itself. 2) Checks for amps out of control. If a mosfet fries, it will pass current without any control by the PWM. This error alerts the user to disconnect the PWM - insistently. 3) Also checks for high amps condition in general and shuts down if found. 4) Brought all advancements made on the truck PWMs to the car PWMs Only difference is max allowed amps. 50A systems will have a "-1" after the software version, and 100A versions will have a "-2". 5) Auto calibrate menu item was replaced with a procedure that calibrates the unit at each startup. 6) Added a "Code Entry" step. This is for making changes to the programming after the display/controller has left the factory.

Version 1.26: Added ability to cancel the fan error which sometimes causes nuisance errors in cold weather when the fan is not needed.

Version 1.27: Added on/off switch in software. Amps callibration was added to the menu.

Version 1.28/9: Changed the fan error to display once every 45 seconds or so, but then go back to normal display. Added a password function so that a password can be required to use the menu. Deleted the following errors: No Load, Instant Amps, High Current. Many code optimizations.

Version 1.30-1.32: Minor bug fixes for new functionality.

Note: 100A Commercial PWM Software version is currently 2.28.

Version 2.3: No changes to software. This was just a consolidation of the various forms of the controller for different hardware platforms. From this point forward, the versions will have a suffix to indicate the PWM hardware it is designed for, as follows:
2.3t: 100A Commercial PWM, also known as the Truck PWM. Large green anodized aluminum heat sink case.
2.3s: Constant Current PWM that comes in a black plastic case. Will be replaced by 2.3c.
2.3c: Newer version of the Constant Current PWM that will be released in Dec 14 or Jan 15. Comes in an aluminum heat sink case.
2.3a 20 Amp Constant Current PWM that will only be available for a limited time. Also housed in an aluminum heat sink case.

Future versions will be listed by number only. The suffix letter will remain the same as listed above.

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